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ALTO User Guide

Overview

The ALTO project is aimed to provide support for Application Layer Traffic Optimization services defined in RFC 7285 in OpenDaylight.

This user guide will introduce the three basic services (namely simple-ird, manual-maps and host-tracker) which are implemented since the Beryllium release, and give instructions on how to configure them to provide corresponding ALTO services.

A new feature named simple-pce (Simple Path Computation Engine) is added into Boron release as an ALTO extension service.

How to Identify ALTO Resources

Each ALTO resource can be uniquely identified by a tuple . For each resource, a version-tag is used to support historical look-ups.

The formats of resource-id and version-tag are defined in section 10.2 and section 10.3 respectively. The context-id is not part of the protocol and we choose the same format as a universal unique identifier (UUID) which is defined in RFC 4122.

A context is like a namespace for ALTO resources, which eliminates resource-id collisions. For simplicity, we also provide a default context with the id 000000000000-0000-0000-0000-00000000.

How to Use Simple IRD

The simple IRD feature provides a simple information resource directory (IRD) service defined in RFC 7285.

Install the Feature

To enable simple IRD, run the following command in the karaf CLI:

karaf > feature:install odl-alto-simpleird

After the feature is successfully installed, a special context will be created for all simple IRD resources. The id for this context can be seen by executing the following command in a terminal:

curl -X GET -u admin:admin http://localhost:8181/restconf/operational/alto-simple-ird:information/

Create a new IRD

To create a new IRD resource, two fields MUST be provided:

  • Field instance-id: the resource-id of the IRD resource;
  • Field entry-context: the context-id for non-IRD entries managed by this IRD resource.

Using the following script, one can create an empty IRD resource:

#!/bin/bash
# filename: ird-create
INSTANCE_ID=$1
if [ $2 ]; then
    CONTEXT_ID=$2
else
    CONTEXT_ID="00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000"
fi
URL="`http://localhost:8181/restconf/config/alto-simple-ird:ird-instance-configuration/"$INSTANCE_ID"/[`http://localhost:8181/restconf/config/alto-simple-ird:ird-instance-configuration/"$INSTANCE_ID"/`]`"
DATA=$(cat template \
  | sed 's/\$1/'$CONTEXT_ID'/g' \
  | sed 's/\$2/'$INSTANCE_ID'/g')
curl -4 -D - -X PUT -u admin:admin \
  -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d "$(echo $DATA)"\
  $URL

For example, the following command will create a new IRD named ird which can accept entries with the default context-id:

$ ./ird-create ird 000000000000-0000-0000-0000-00000000

And below is the what the template file looks like:

{
    "ird-instance-configuration": {
        "entry-context": "/alto-resourcepool:context[alto-resourcepool:context-id='$1']",
        "instance-id": "$2"
    }
}

Remove an IRD

To remove an existing IRD (and all the entries in it), one can use the following command in a terminal:

curl -X DELETE -u admin:admin http://localhost:8181/restconf/config/alto-simple-ird:ird-instance-configuration/$INSTANCE_ID

Add a new entry

There are several ways to add entries to an IRD and in this section we introduce only the simplest method. Using the following script, one can add a new entry to the target IRD.

For each new entry, four parameters MUST be provided:

  • Parameter ird-id: the resource-id of the target IRD;
  • Parameter entry-id: the resource-id of the ALTO service to be added;
  • Parameter context-id: the context-id of the ALTO service to be added, which MUST be identical to the target IRD’s entry-context;
  • Parameter location: either a URI or a relative path to the ALTO service.

The following script can be used to add one entry to the target IRD, where the relative path is used:

#!/bin/bash
# filename: ird-add-entry
IRD_ID=$1
ENTRY_ID=$2
CONTEXT_ID=$3
BASE_URL=$4
URL="`http://localhost:8181/restconf/config/alto-simple-ird:ird-instance-configuration/"$IRD_ID"/ird-configuration-entry/"$ENTRY_ID"/"
DATA=$(cat template \
  | sed 's/\$1/'$ENTRY_ID'/g' \
  | sed 's/\$2/'$CONTEXT_ID'/g' \
  | sed 's/\$3/'$BASE_URL'/g' )
curl -4 -D - -X PUT -u admin:admin \
  -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d "$(echo $DATA)" \
  $URL

For example, the following command will add a new resource named networkmap, whose context-id is the default context-id and the base URL is /alto/networkmap, to the IRD named ird:

$ ./ird-add-entry ird networkmap 000000000000-0000-0000-0000-00000000 /alto/networkmap

And below is the template file:

{
    "ird-configuration-entry": {
        "entry-id": "$1",
        "instance": "/alto-resourcepool:context[alto-resourcepool:context-id='$2']/alto-resourcepool:resource[alto-resourcepool:resource-id='$1']",
        "path": "$3/$1"
    }
}

Remove an entry

To remove an entry from an IRD, one can use the following one-line command:

curl -X DELETE -u admin:admin http://localhost:8181/restconf/config/alto-simple-ird:ird-instance-configuration/$IRD_ID/ird-configuration-entry/$ENTRY_ID/

How to Use Host-tracker-based ECS

As a real instance of ALTO services, *alto-hosttracker* reads data from *l2switch* and generates a network map with resource id *hosttracker-network-map* and a cost map with resource id *hostracker-cost-map*. It can only work with OpenFlow-enabled networks.

After installing the *odl-alto-hosttracker* feature, the corresponding network map and cost map will be inserted into the data store.

Managing Resource with alto-resourcepool

After installing odl-alto-release feature in Karaf, alto-resourcepool feature will be installed automatically. And you can manage all resources in ALTO via RESTCONF APIs provided by alto-resourcepool.

With the example bash script below you can get any resource infomation in a given context.

#!/bin/bash
RESOURCE_ID=$1
if [ $2 ] ; then
    CONTEXT_ID=$2
else
    CONTEXT_ID="00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000"
fi
URL="http://localhost:8181/restconf/operational/alto-resourcepool:context/"$CONTEXT_ID"/alto-resourcepool:resource/"$RESOURCE_ID
curl -X GET -u admin:admin $URL | python -m json.tool | sed -n '/default-tag/p' | sed 's/.*:.*\"\(.*\)\".*/\1/g'

Manual Configuration

Using RESTCONF API

After installing odl-alto-release feature in Karaf, it is possible to manage network-maps and cost-maps using RESTCONF. Take a look at all the operations provided by resource-config at the API service page which can be found at http://localhost:8181/apidoc/explorer/index.html.

The easiest method to operate network-maps and cost-maps is to modify data broker via RESTCONF API directly.

Using RPC

The resource-config package also provides a query RPC to config the resources. You can CREATE, UPDATE and DELETE network-maps and cost-maps via query RPC.

Simple Path Computation Engine

The simple-pce module provides a simple path computation engine for ALTO and other projects. It supports basic CRUD (create, read, update, delete) operations to manage L2 and L3 routing with/without rate limitation. This module is an independent feature, so you can follow the instruction below to install it independently.

karaf > feature:install odl-alto-extenstion

Note

The rate limitation meter requires OpenFlow 1.3 support.

Basic Usage with RESTCONF API

You can use the simple path computation engine with RESTCONF API, which is defined in the YANG model here.

Use Case

Server Selection

One of the key use case for ALTO is server selection. For example, a client (with IP address 10.0.0.1) sends a data transferring request to Data Transferring Service (DTS). And there are three data replica servers (with IP address 10.60.0.1, 10.60.0.2 and 10.60.0.3) which can response the request. In this case, DTS can send a query request to ALTO server to make server selection decision.

Following is an example ALTO query:

POST /alto/endpointcost HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:8080
Content-Type: application/alto-endpointcostparams+json
Accept: application/alto-endpointcost+json,application/alto-error+json
{
  "cost-type": {
    "cost-mode": "ordinal",
    "cost-metric": "hopcount"
  },
  "endpoints": {
    "srcs": [ "ipv4:10.0.0.1" ],
    "dsts": [
      "ipv4:10.60.0.1",
      "ipv4:10.60.0.2",
      "ipv4:10.60.0.3"
  ]
  }
}